Many years of domestic and foreign practice of working with disabled persons with disorders of musculoskeletal system, shows that physical education and sport for them, the most effective methods of rehabilitation. Physical activity that starts during the stay of a disabled person in the hospital and continues after discharge, prevents the care of a disabled person in their illness. Physical culture and sports counteract abnormal psychological and antisocial behavior that often occurs on the grounds of severe disability.
The goal of the physical education and sports – the development of self-discipline, self-respect, the spirit of competition and friendship, i.e., those characteristic qualities which are essential for the integration or reintegration of the disabled in society. Thus, the sport is largely “contribute to the liberation of man with severe disabilities from the ghetto of isolation in which it languished for many centuries due to lack of understanding and negative reactions of the people around him”.
Kinesophobia, including physical culture and sports, expansion on its basis in motor mode disabled is a natural, physiologically reasonable means of combating hypokinesia, factor to overcome the lack of proprioceptive afferentation.
The role of physical culture and sports in the life of a disabled person:
- therapeutic value: training health physical education and sport is a natural form of therapeutic exercises that can be used as a Supplement to conventional methods of physical rehabilitation. It is difficult to overestimate their importance for the recuperation of the disabled person, the ability to coordinate, develop speed and endurance. Entering into a competition with yourself, striving to improve its performance, the disabled person learns to overcome fatigue is the main symptom in the early stages of recovery;
- the psychological value of sport as recreation: the disabled person should consider every exercise not only as a victory, muscle struggle to restore power, but also as a source of joy. Sport has a significant advantage over formal exercise is a factor for travelers. Sport as a model of gambling activities makes up for the need to Express life’s joy and satisfaction inherent in every human being;
- physical education and sport – a means of social reintegration of disabled people into society, a powerful incentive to restore or establish contact with the outside world. Thus, the physical culture and sport facilitate and accelerate the return of disabled people into society, contribute to their recognition as equal citizens. There are sports and games, in which persons with disabilities can participate on an equal basis with healthy people (for example, sitting in wheelchairs to shoot a bow, to play skittles, table tennis, etc.).
Exercise physical exercise improves the body, significantly increases its capabilities. Distinctive features of the trained body at rest:
- stability – optimal level of biochemical and physiological constants and their high stability. These properties provide a significant intractability of the organism to the disturbing effects of exercise;
- resistance – trained body’s ability to more fully mobilize the function that is associated with a significant range shifts in the internal environment and the entire vegetative sphere. This allows trained body without damage to withstand large deviations homeostatic constants during muscular activity;
- tolerance is developed in the process of training the property of the body to maintain a certain level of performance in extremely adverse conditions related to the implementation of hard and tedious work, a large lack of oxygen, exposure to high and low temperatures, etc. While there are strong deviations from homeostatic constants that untrained body is not able to migrate, and trained them adapted.
Locomotor apparatus of the disabled person involved in sport is changing – there are a number of positive changes in the osteoarticular and muscular systems. The basis for the development of fitness – improving nerve control all organs, including the heart. As a result of training increases strength, balance and mobility of nervous processes, which leads to better regulation of body functions. At the same time improving and koordiniruyutsya interaction of motor and autonomic functions. Exercise in one form or another, shown to almost all disabled young and middle age with movement disorders.
Fizkulturno-improving and sports work should begin immediately upon completion of the stage of medical rehabilitation in a specialized hospital.
The initial conditions for the start of classes:
- the presence of medical indications and absence of contraindications;
- strong motivation, interest and functional background;
- stabilization achieved with rehabilitation treatment and rehabilitation after injury or illness.
Contraindications in the majority of cases are determined by various diseases of internal organs and affect all categories of disabled people, regardless of the cause of disability.
To the regular practice of physical activities and sports may be admitted persons with disabilities:
- with spinal cord lesions at different levels (operated or have passed a course of conservative treatment). After minor or moderate severity classes it is recommended to start after 6 months, gradually increasing physical activity; after a serious injury – 1 year (with the exception of injuries of the cervical spine);
- after neuroinfection; sports shows in remission (not earlier than in a year).
The main factors determining the possibility of physical training and sports of invalids:
- the nature of ocular pathology;
- General physical preparedness;
- the level of psychological preparedness.
These factors – the basis of determination of indications to the restriction and contraindications to physical stress. The purpose of any activity (work, home or sports) – the satisfaction of particular needs. In most cases, the need for the disabled person in finding work, recovery, performance at competitions, etc. Motivation can be strong or weak, in which case it will need to be strengthened through external influences (e.g., physical exercise and sport), i.e. to create a motivational setting. It has an important property, which is important when working with people with disabilities: it long is stored in memory and transformirovalsya in readiness at the appropriate conditions. It is, in fact, the potential motive, which was formed but not shown at the moment.
Consider depression among people with disabilities due to many factors. Depressive mood sooner or later manifest depressive behavior. D. Myers is schematically illustrated a vicious circle of depression.
The vicious circle of depression
Negative experiences – focusing on yourself and self-blame – depression – depressive behavior (negative experiences). And so the circle.